the authors compared the efficacy and safety of detoxification from opioids compared with opioid replacement therapy (ORT) during pregnancy. indings suggest an increased risk of relapse with detoxification treatment compared with ORT; however, detoxification does not alter the risk of preterm birth or neonatal abstinece syndrome. Further studies should confirm our findings and explore mechanisms to fight the current opioid epidemic.

16th October 2018 • 0 comments

Janani Suraksha Yojana (safe motherhood scheme, or JSY) provides cash incentives to marginal pregnant women in India conditional on having mainly institutional delivery. Using the fourth round of district level household survey (DLHS-4), we have estimated its effects on both intended and unintended outcomes. Our estimates of average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) from propensity score matching are remarkably higher than those found in previous prominent studies using the second and third rounds of the survey (DLHS-2 and DLHS-3). When we apply fuzzy regression discontinuity design exploiting the second birth order, our estimates of local average treatment effect (LATE) are much higher than that of ATT. For example, due to JSY, institutional delivery increases by around 16 percentage points according to ATT estimate but about 23 percentage points according to LATE estimate.

8th October 2018 • 0 comments

In 2015, 2·6 million stillbirths were estimated globally, more than 7100 deaths a day, with most occurring in developing countries. These figures are substantial, yet they are an underestimation of the full extent of this loss because stillbirths at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy are not included in these numbers. If the 22-week threshold was applied, the numbers have been estimated to be 40% higher. 

8th October 2018 • 0 comments

The GAPD is a comprehensive tool that can be used to strengthen knowledge, inform law and policy research to generate evidence on the impact of laws and policies in practice, and facilitate greater awareness of the many challenges to creating enabling policy environments for safe abortion.

2nd October 2018 • 0 comments

The study draws on Demographic and Health Survey data from five countries where three surveys are available since 1990, with the most recent after 2006. It examines trends in adolescent births by wealth status and urban/rural residence. The study draws on Demographic and Health Survey data from five countries where three surveys are available since 1990, with the most recent after 2006. It examines trends in adolescent births by wealth status and urban/rural residence.

10th September 2018 • 0 comments

The World Health Organization has developed a multistep approach to health inequality monitoring consisting of: (i) determining the scope of monitoring; (ii) obtaining data; (iii) analysing data; (iv) reporting results; and (v) implementing changes. This paper presents some technical considerations for developing or strengthening health inequality monitoring, with the aim of encouraging more robust, systematic and transparent practices. It discusses key aspects of measuring health inequalities that are relevant to steps (i) and (iii). 

10th September 2018 • 0 comments

The authors analyzed state-level maternal mortality for the years 1997–2012 using multilevel mixed-effects regression grouped by state, using publicly available data including whether a state had adopted the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Death, designed to simplify identification of pregnant and recently pregnant decedents. Findings indicate that, in addition to better case ascertainment of maternal deaths, adverse changes in chronic diseases, insufficient healthcare access, and social determinants of health represent identifiable risks for maternal mortality that merit prompt attention in population-directed interventions and health policies.

29th August 2018 • 0 comments
15th August 2018 • 0 comments

This systematic review aimed to offer insight and understanding, through aggregation, summary, synthesis and interpretation of findings from studies that report obstetricians’ and midwives’ views on the factors that influence the decision to perform caesarean section. This systematic review and metasynthesis identified clinicians’ personal beliefs as a major factor that influenced the decision to perform caesarean section, further contributed by the influence of factors related to the health care system and clinicians’ characteristics. Obstetricians and midwives are directly involved in the decision to perform a caesarean section, hence their perspectives are vital in understanding various factors that have influence on decision-making for caesarean section. These results can help clinicians identify and acknowledge their role as crucial members in the decision-making process for caesarean section within their organisation, and to develop intervention studies to reduce caesarean section rates in future. 

14th August 2018 • 0 comments
10th August 2018 • comment

This systematic review aims to estimate the magnitude and severity of complications associated with abortion in areas where access to abortion is limited, with a particular focus on potentially life-threatening complications. In spite of the challenges on how near miss morbidity has been defined and measured in the included studies, our results suggest that a substantial percentage of abortion-related hospital admissions have potentially life-threatening complications. Estimates that are more reliable will only be obtained with increased use of standard definitions such as the WHO near-miss criteria and/or better reporting of clinical criteria applied in studies. 

30th July 2018 • 0 comments

In a quasi-experimental trial design, unions with an average population of about 25 000 and a first level health facility were allocated to an intervention arm (n = 4) to receive integrated post-partum family planning and maternal and newborn health (PPFP-MNH) interventions, or to a control arm (n = 4) to receive the MNH interventions only. Study findings demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of integrating PPFP interventions into a community based MNH intervention package. Thus, MNH programs should consider systematically integrating PPFP as a service component to improve pregnancy spacing and reduce the risk of preterm birth.

30th July 2018 • 0 comments

The aim of this study was to determine whether an intervention designed to involve the male partners of pregnant women in Burkina Faso in facility-based maternity care influences care-seeking and healthy practices after childbirth. The hypothesis was that the intervention would increase postnatal care attendance, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the use of postpartum contraception. Findings suggest that the intervention to involve male partners in maternity care was associated with an increase in attendance at postnatal care consultations, in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and in the use of postpartum contraception, especially long-acting, reversible contraception. The intervention also had a positive effect on communication between the couple and shared decision-making related to reproductive health. 

10th July 2018 • 0 comments

This large trial compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin. The study enrolled women across 23 sites in 10 countries in a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial comparing intramuscular injections of heat-stable carbetocin (at a dose of 100 μg) with oxytocin (at a dose of 10 IU) administered immediately after vaginal birth. Findings suggest that heat-stable carbetocin was noninferior to oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents. Noninferiority was not shown for the outcome of blood loss of at least 1000 ml; low event rates for this outcome reduced the power of the trial.

10th July 2018 • 0 comments

The objective was to determine whether low dose aspirin reduces the rate of spontaneous PTB in nulliparous women without medical co-morbidities. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low dose aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia in healthy, low-risk, nulliparous women. Low dose aspirin is associated with a substantial decrease in spontaneous PTB <34wks in healthy nulliparous women without co-morbidities. These findings suggest a new therapeutic option for PTB prevention that requires further study.

26th June 2018 • 0 comments

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 52 health facilities in Tanzania utilizing direct observations of women during labor and delivery. Findings suggets that the quality of PPH prevention increased substantially in facilities that implemented competency-based training and quality improvement interventions, with the most dramatic improvement seen at lower-level facilities. As Tanzania continues with efforts to increase facility births, it is imperative that the quality of care also be improved by promoting use of up-to-date guidelines and ensuring regular training and mentoring for health care providers so that they adhere to the guidelines for care of women during labor. These measures can reduce maternal and newborn mortality.

26th June 2018 • 0 comments

Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to numerous adverse health consequences for both the developing fetus and mother. This study estimated the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy by country, WHO region, and globally and the proportion of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, by frequency and quantity, on a global level. The findings suggest that smoking during pregnancy is still a prevalent behaviour in many countries. These findings should inform smoking prevention programmes and health promotion strategies, as well as draw attention to the need for improved access to smoking cessation programmes for pregnant women.

12th June 2018 • 0 comments

For every woman who dies during pregnancy and childbirth, many more suffer ill-health, the burden of which is highest in low-resource settings. The study sought to assess the extent and types of maternal morbidity. Findings from this study suggests that women suffer significant ill-health which is still largely unrecognised. Current antenatal and postnatal care packages require adaptation if they are to meet the identified health needs of women.

12th June 2018 • 0 comments