The authors investigated whether there is a causal relationship between coffee consumption and miscarriage, stillbirth, birthweight, gestational age and pre-term birth using Mendelian randomization (MR). Results suggest that coffee consumption during pregnancy might not itself contribute to adverse outcomes such as stillbirth, sporadic miscarriages and pre-term birth or lower gestational age or birthweight of the offspring.


  1. Chen L-W, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong MF-F, Pan A, van Dam RM. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. BMC Med 2014;12:174.

  2. Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Windham GC, Swan SH. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth. Am J Public Health 1991;81:458–61.

  3. Evans DM, Moen G-H, Hwang L-D, Lawlor DA, Warrington NM. Elucidating the role of maternal environmental exposures on offspring health and disease using two-sample Mendelian randomization. Int J Epidemiol 2019;48:861–75.


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