The authors aimed to identify and compare modifiable risk factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes and those with type 2 diabetes and to identify effective maternity clinics. The data highlight persistent adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Maternal glycaemia and BMI are the key modifiable risk factors. No maternity clinics were had appreciably better outcomes than any others, suggesting that health-care system changes are needed across all clinics.


  1. Feig DS Hwee J Shah BR Booth GL Bierman AS Lipscombe LL. Trends in incidence of diabetes in pregnancy and serious perinatal outcomes: a large, population-based study in Ontario, Canada, 1996–2010. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: 1590-1596

  2. Mackin ST Nelson SM Kerssens JJ et al. Diabetes and pregnancy: national trends over a 15 year period. Diabetologia. 2018; 61: 1081-1088

  3. Fadl HE Simmons D. Trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden 1998–2012. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016; 4e000221


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