The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between being a Bolsa Família program (BFP) beneficiary and maternal mortality and to examine how this association differs by duration of BFP receipt, maternal race, living in rural or urban areas, the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), and municipal primary health care coverage. This cross-sectional analysis nested within the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort found an association between BFP receipt and maternal mortality. This association was of greater magnitude in women with longer exposure to BFP and in the most vulnerable groups. These findings reinforce evidence that programs such as BFP, which have already proven effective in poverty reduction, have great potential to improve maternal survival.


  1. Lim SS, Dandona L, Hoisington JA, James SL, Hogan MC, Gakidou E. India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: an impact evaluation. Lancet. 2010;375(9730):2009-2023. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60744-1

  2. Falcão IR, Ribeiro-Silva RC, Alves FJO, et al.. Evaluating the effect of Bolsa Familia, Brazil’s conditional cash transfer programme, on maternal and child health: a study protocol. PLoS One. 2022;17(5):e0268500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268500

  3. Barreto ML, Ichihara MY, Pescarini JM, et al.. Cohort profile: the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort. Int J Epidemiol. 2022;51(2):e27-e38. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyab213


Please Sign in (or Register) to view further.