This systematic review summarises association between short interpregnancy intervals and adverse perinatal health outcomes in high-resource settings to inform recommendations for healthy birth spacing for the United States. In high-resource settings, there is some evidence showing interpregnancy intervals <6 months since last livebirth are associated with increased risks for preterm birth, small-for-gestational age and infant death; however, results were inconsistent. Additional research controlling for confounding would further inform recommendations for healthy birth spacing for the United States.


  1. Conde‐Agudelo A, Rosas‐Bermudez A, Castano F, Norton MH. Effects of birth spacing on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health: a systematic review of causal mechanismsStud Fam Plann2012;43:93‐114.

  2. Conde‐Agudelo A, Rosas‐Bermudez A, Kafury‐Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta‐analysisJ Am Med Assoc2006;295:1809‐1823.

  3. World Health Organization. Report of a WHO Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing: Geneva, Switzerland, 13–15 June 2005. Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006


Please Sign in (or Register) to view further.