The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) previously found strong evidence that prenatal HIV screening reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission. The previous evidence review was conducted in 2012. Findings suggest that combination ART was highly effective at reducing risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Use of certain ART regimens during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of harms that may be mitigated by selection of ART regimen. The 2012 review found that avoidance of breastfeeding and cesarean delivery in women with viremia also reduced risk of transmission and that prenatal screening accurately diagnosed HIV infection.
Chou R, Cantor AG, Zakher B, Bougatsos C. Screening for HIV in pregnant women: systematic review to update the 2005 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2012; 157(10):719-728
Fowler MG, Qin M, Fiscus SA, et al; IMPAACT 1077BF/1077FF PROMISE Study Team. Benefits and risks of antiretroviral therapy for perinatal HIV prevention. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(18):1726-1737.
Sartorius BK, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, et al; Kesho Bora Study Group. Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries. BMC
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