This observational study analyzed 2014-2019 US birth data to assess changes in preterm birth, cesarean delivery, induction of labor, and associated risks. Findings suggest that a renewed effort to understand the trends in preterm interventions is needed to ensure that obstetrical interventions are evidence-based and are limited to those cases where they optimize outcomes for both mothers and babies.


  1. Di Renzo GC, Tosto V, Giardina I. The biological basis and prevention of preterm birth. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;52:13–22

  2. Pascal A, Govaert P, Oostra A, Naulaers G, Ortibus E, Van den Broeck C. Neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm and very-low-birthweight infants born over the past decade: a meta-analytic review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2018;60(4):342–355

  3. Ely DM, Driscoll AK. Infant mortality in the United States, 2018: Data from the period linked birth/infant death file. National vital statistics reports vol 69 no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2020


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