The study identified sensitive windows of exposure to regional air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examined sex differences in a large birth cohort. Findings suggest that exposures to PM2.5 in the first two gestational trimesters were associated with increased ASD risk in children, with stronger associations observed for boys. The role of O3 exposure on ASD risk merits further investigation.


  1. Jo H, Eckel SP, Wang X, Chen JC, Cockburn M, Martinez MP, Chow T, Molshatzki N, Lurmann FW, Funk WE, Xiang AH, McConnell R. Sex-specific associations of autism spectrum disorder with residential air pollution exposure in a large Southern California pregnancy cohort. Environ Pollut. 2019 Nov;254(Pt A):113010. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113010. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

  2. Jo H, Eckel SP, Chen JC, Cockburn M, Martinez MP, Chow T, Lurmann FW, Funk WE, Xiang AH, McConnell R. Gestational diabetes mellitus, prenatal air pollution exposure, and autism spectrum disorder. Environ Int. 2019 Dec;133(Pt A):105110. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105110. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

  3. Carter SA, Rahman MM, Lin JC, Shu YH, Chow T, Yu X, Martinez MP, Eckel SP, Chen JC, Chen Z, Schwartz J, Pavlovic N, Lurmann FW, McConnell R, Xiang AH. In utero exposure to near-roadway air pollution and autism spectrum disorder in children. Environ Int. 2022 Jan;158:106898. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106898. Epub 2021 Oct 6


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