This report by the WHO shows the current burden of childhood mortality. Overall there is progress towards MDG 4, as under five mortality has declined to 6.9 million from 12 million in 1990 and the annual rate of reduction has also increased but still this progress is not sufficient to meet the MDG 4.

The leading causes of death are pneumonia (18%), preterm birth complications (14%), diarrhea (11%), intrapartum related complications (9%), and malaria (7%). The progress achieved so far has also been disproportional, as Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia are the worst affected and the difference with the rest of the world has also widened.  About half of under-five deaths occur in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China.

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